Constituição do Alabama

Fonte: wikipédia em inglês e MSNBC.

Em 2004, um plebiscito para revogar o trecho da Constituição do Alabama que previa a segregação racial na educação não teve sucesso. A maioria dos eleitores decidiu votar pela permanência desse texto na Constituição.

Histórico de racismo
Diversos elementos racistas da Constituição do Alabama não estão em vigor em função de decisões da Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos.

O Presidente da Constituinte (1901) do Alabama, em seu discurso de abertura dos debates legislativos, afirmou que sua intenção era, "dentro dos limites impostos pela Constituição Federal, estabelecer a supremacia branca no Estado."

A proibição ao casamento interracial só foi revogada no ano 2000, pela emenda 667.

O plebiscito sobre o fim da segregação racial nas escolas
The constitution still requires racially segregated education in the state (Section 256). Although this provision has not been enforced since the 1960s, the continued existence of these provisions is seen by some in Alabama as an embarrassment to the state. A proposal to strike the segregation requirement was defeated narrowly in 2004 (MSNBC). Nearly all organizations opposing the repeal of the segregation measure pointed to a provision stating that the state did not provide a "right" to a state financed education. Groups opposing the repeal of this amendment claimed that repeal would lead to court decisions requiring the state to raise taxes.

Explicação (do artigo da MSNBC):

The amendment had two main parts: the removal of the separate-schools language and the removal of a passage — inserted in the 1950s in an attempt to counter the Brown v. Board of Education ruling against segregated public schools — that said Alabama's constitution does not guarantee a right to a public education. Leading opponents, such as Alabama Christian Coalition President John Giles, said they did not object to removing the passage about separate schools for "white and colored children." But, employing an argument that was ridiculed by most of the state's newspapers and by legions of legal experts, Giles and others said guaranteeing a right to a public education would have opened a door for "rogue" federal judges to order the state to raise taxes to pay for improvements in its public school system.

Section 177 denied women the right to vote by confining voting rights to "male citizens," but this was rendered unenforceable by the 19th Amendment until Amendment 579 was substituted, which contained no reference to gender.


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